To Our Venerable Brethren the Patriarchs, Primates, 
Archbishops, and other Ordinaries, in Peace and Union with Holy See.

Although We have already many times ordered special prayers to be offered up in the whole world, that the interests of Catholicism might be insistently recommended to God, none will deem it matter for surprise that We consider the present moment an opportune one for again inculcating the same duty. During periods of stress and trial – chiefly when every lawlessness of act seems permitted to the powers of darkness – it has been the custom in the Church to plead with special fervour and perseverance to God, her author and protector, by recourse to the intercession of the saints – and chiefly of the Blessed Virgin, Mother of God – whose patronage has ever been the most efficacious. The fruit of these pious prayers and of the confidence reposed in the Divine goodness, has always, sooner or later, been made apparent. Now, Venerable Brethren, you know the times in which we live; they are scarcely less deplorable for the Christian religion than the worst days, which in time past were most full of misery to the Church. We see faith, the root of all the Christian virtues, lessening in many souls; we see charity growing cold; the young generation daily growing in depravity of morals and views; the Church of Jesus Christ attacked on every side by open force or by craft; a relentless war waged against the Sovereign Pontiff; and the very foundations of religion undermined with a boldness which waxes daily in intensity. These things are, indeed, so much a matter of notoriety that it is needless for Us to expatiate on the depths to which society has sunk in these days, or on the designs which now agitate the minds of men. In circumstances so unhappy and troublous, human remedies are insufficient, and it becomes necessary, as a sole resource, to beg for assistance from the Divine power./ ➡️ Vatican 🇻🇦 Link


List of Catholic philosophers and theologians

This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.

Ancient (born before 500 AD)

Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35/50 – between 98 and 110)
Papias of Hierapolis (c. 60 – c. 163)
Polycarp of Smyrna (c. 69 – c. 155)
Justin Martyr (100–165)
Irenaeus (130–202)
Clement of Rome (died 99)
Clement of Alexandria (150–215)
Tertullian (155–222)
Origen of Alexandria (184–253)
Cyprian of Carthage (200–258)
Aphrahat (270–345)
Athanasius of Alexandria (296–373)
Hillary of Poitiers (300–368)
Ephrem the Syrian (306–373)
Basil of Caesarea (329–379)
Gregory Nazianzus (329–390)
Gregory of Nyssa (335–395)
Ambrose (340–397)
Jerome (347–420)
John Chrysostom (347–407)
Augustine of Hippo (354–430)
Cyril of Alexandria (378–444)
Isaac of Antioch (451–452)
Boethius (477–524)

Early Medieval (born between 500 AD and 1100 AD)

Pope Gregory I (540-604)
Isadore of Seville (560-636)
Maximus the Confessor (580-662)
Bede (672/3-735)
John of Damascus (675/6-749)
Radbertus (785-865)
John Scotus Eriugena (800-877)
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109)
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Adelard of Bath (1080-1152)
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
Peter Lombard (1096-1160)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)

High Medieval (born between 1100 AD and 1450 AD)

Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253)
Francis of Assisi (1181/2-1226)
Alexander of Hales (1185-1245)
Albertus Magnus (1193-1280)
Henry of Ghent (1217-1293)
Roger Bacon (1219/20-1292)
Bonaventure (1221-1274)
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Ramon Llull (1232-1315)
Giles of Rome (1243-1316)
Godfrey of Fontaines (1250-1306/9)
James of Viterbo (1255-1307)
Gertrude of Helfta (1256-1302)
Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
John Duns Scotus (1266-1308)
William of Alnwick (1275-1333)
William of Ockham (1287-1347)
William of Ware (1290-1305)
Henry Suso (1295-1366)
Jean Buridan (1300-1358/61)
Bridget of Sweden (1303-1373)
Albert of Saxony (1320-1390)
Nicole Oresme (1325-1382)
Catherine of Siena (1347-1380)
Jean Gerson (1363-1429)
John Capreolus (1380-1444)
Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464)

Renaissance and Early Modern (born between 1450 AD and 1750 AD)

Sylvester Mazzolini (1456/7-1527)
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
John Mair (1467-1550)
Thomas Cajetan (1469-1534)
Francesco Silvestri (1474-1528)
Thomas More (1478-1535)
John Fisher (1469-1535)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546)
Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
Peter Faber (1506-1546)
Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582)
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
Domingo Báñez (1528-1604)
Franciscus Patricius (1529-1597)
Luis de Molina (1535-1600)
John of the Cross (1542-1591)
Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621)
Justus Lipsius (1547-1606)
Francisco Suárez (1548-1617)
Lawrence of Brindisi (1559-1619)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Péter Pázmány (1570-1637)
John of St. Thomas (John Poinsot) (1589-1644)
Michael Wadding (1591-1644)
René Descartes (1596-1650)
Matthias Tanner (1630-1692)
Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Noel Alexandre (1639-1724)
Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)
Giovanni Battista Scaramelli (1687-1752)
Peter Dens (1690-1775)
Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787)
Febronius (Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim) (1701-1790)

Doctor of the Church (Latin: doctor \”teacher\”), also referred to as Doctor of the Universal Church (Latin: Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis), is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints recognized as having made a significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing.

Christian writers [Doctors of The Church] of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries are usually referred to as the Ante-Nicene Fathers

Fathers of the Church attained this honour in the early Middle Ages: Gregory the Great, Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, and Jerome. The \”four Doctors\” became a commonplace notion among scholastic theologians, and a decree of Boniface VIII (1298) ordering their feasts to be kept as doubles throughout the Latin Church is contained in his sixth book of Decretals (cap. \”Gloriosus\”, de relique. et vener. sanctorum, in Sexto, III, 22).

In the Byzantine Church, three Doctors were pre-eminent: John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzus. The feasts of these three saints were made obligatory throughout the Eastern Empire by Leo VI the Wise. A common feast was later instituted in their honour on 30 January, called \”the feast of the three Hierarchs\”. In the Menaea for that day it is related that the three Doctors appeared in a dream to John Mauropous, Bishop of Euchaita, and commanded him to institute a festival in their honour, in order to put a stop to the rivalries of their votaries and panegyrists. This was under Alexius Comnenus (1081–1118; see \”Acta SS.\”, 14 June, under St. Basil, c. xxxviii). But sermons for the feast are attributed in manuscripts to Cosmas Vestitor, who flourished in the tenth century. The three are as common in Eastern art as the four are in Western. Durandus remarks that Doctors should be represented with books in their hands. In the West analogy led to the veneration of four Eastern Doctors, Athanasius of Alexandria being added to the three hierarchs.

The Four Great Doctors of the Western Church were often depicted in art, here by Pier Francesco Sacchi, c. 1516. From the left: Saint Augustine, Pope Gregory I, Saint Jerome, and Saint Ambrose, with their Cultural attributes.

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers who established the intellectual and doctrinal foundations of Christianity. The historical period in which they worked became known as the Patristic Era and spans approximately from the late 1st to mid-8th centuries, flourishing in particular during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Christianity was in the process of establishing itself as the state church of the Roman Empire

The Church Fathers, an 11th-century Kievan Rus\’ miniature from Svyatoslav\’s Miscellany

In traditional religious theology, authors considered Church Fathers are treated as authoritative, and a somewhat restrictive definition is used. The academic field of patristics, the study of the Church Fathers, has extended the scope of the term, and there is no definitive list. Some, such as Origen and Tertullian, made major contributions to the development of later Christian theology, but certain elements of their teaching were later condemned.

Great Fathers

In the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church traditions there are four Fathers each who are called the \”Great Church Fathers”. In the Catholic Church, they are collectively called the \”Eight Doctors of the Church\”

Western Church
Ambrose (A.D. 340–397)
Jerome (347–420)
Augustine of Hippo (354–430)
Pope Gregory I (540–604)
Eastern Church
Athanasius of Alexandria (c. 296 or 298 – 373)
Gregory of Nazianzus (329 – c. 390)
Basil of Caesarea (c. 330 – 379)
John Chrysostom (347–407)
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, three of them (Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom) are honored as the \”Three Holy Hierarchs\”.

Apostolic Fathers

Main article: Apostolic Fathers
The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them. Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were ultimately not included in the canon of the New Testament once it reached its final form. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature that did come to be part of the New Testament, and some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers\’ seem to have been just as highly regarded as some of the writings that became the New Testament. The first three, Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp, are considered the chief ones.

Clement of Rome

Pope Clement I
The First Epistle of Clement (c. 96), is the earliest extant epistle from a Church Father. In the epistle, Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain harmony and order.

Copied and widely read in the Early Church, First Clement had been considered by some as part of the New Testament canon, e.g., listed as canonical in Canon 85 of the Canons of the Apostles, among other early canons of the New Testament, showing that it had canonical rank in at least some regions of early Christendom. As late as the 14th century Ibn Khaldun mentions it as part of the New Testament.

Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (c. 35 – c. 110) was the third bishop of Antioch and a student of the Apostle John. En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters which have been preserved. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, the role of bishops, and the Incarnation of Christ. Specifically, concerning ecclesiology, his letter to the Romans is often cited as a testament to the universal bounds of the Roman church. He is the second after Clement to mention Paul\’s epistles.

Polycarp of Smyrna

Polycarp of Smyrna (c. 69 – c. 155) was a Christian bishop of Smyrna (now İzmir in Turkey). It is recorded that he had been a disciple of \”John\”. The options/possibilities for this John are John, the son of Zebedee, traditionally viewed as the author of the Gospel of John, or John the Presbyter. Traditional advocates follow Eusebius of Caesarea in insisting that the apostolic connection of Polycarp was with John the Evangelist and that he was the author of the Gospel of John, and thus the Apostle John.

Polycarp tried and failed to persuade Pope Anicetus to have the West celebrate Passover on the 14th of Nisan, as in the Eastern calendar. Around A.D. 155, the Smyrnans of his town demanded Polycarp\’s execution as a Christian, and he died a martyr. The story of his martyrdom describes how the fire built around him would not burn him, and that when he was stabbed to death, so much blood issued from his body that it quenched the flames around him. Polycarp is recognized as a saint in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Papias of Hierapolis

Papias of Hierapolis
Very little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings. He is described as \”an ancient man who was a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp\” by Polycarp\’s disciple Irenaeus (c. 180). Eusebius adds that Papias was Bishop of Hierapolis around the time of Ignatius of Antioch. In this office, Papias was presumably succeeded by Abercius of Hierapolis. The name Papias was very common in the region, suggesting that he was probably a native of the area. The work of Papias is dated by most modern scholars to about A.D. 95–120.

Despite indications that the work of Papias was still extant in the Late Middle Ages, the full text is now lost; however, extracts appear in a number of other writings, some of which cite a book number.

Alexandrian (Egypt) Fathers

Those who wrote in Greek are called the Greek (Church) Fathers. In addition to the Apostolic Fathers, famous Greek Fathers include: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, Athanasius of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, the Cappadocian Fathers (Basil of Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa), Peter of Sebaste, Maximus the Confessor, and John of Damascus

Modern Church: In the Western Catholic Church, the patristic era is believed to have passed and The The Eastern Orthodox Church does not consider the age of Church Fathers to be over.

Orthodox view is that men do not have to agree on every detail, much less be infallible, to be considered Church Fathers; whereas after the Nicene councils the new church of the west decided that the Father of the church is infallible [inability to be wrong; even if he is]

NICENE: [Root word meaning) From 14c., \”of or pertaining to Nicaea (Greek Nikaia, modern Turkish Isnik), city in Bithynia where an ecclesiastical council of 325 C.E. dealt with the Arian schism and produced the Nicene Creed. A second council held there (787) considered the question of images. The name is from Greek nikaios \”victorious,\” from nikē \”victory\” (see Nike) greek goddess Nike Athena

Nike: literally \”upper hand\” (in battle, in wars, and in civil court) connected with neikos \”quarrel, strife,\” neikein \”to quarrel with,\” As the name of a type of U.S. defensive surface-to-air missiles, attested from 1952. The brand of athletic shoes and apparel, based near Portland, Oregon, has been so known since 1971, named for the Greek goddess, having been founded in 1964 as Blue Ribbon sport.

Nicaea: Nicaea or Nicea (/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια, Níkaia) was an ancient Greek city in northwestern Anatolia and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.

325 AD

First Council of Nicaea, (325), the first ecumenical council of the Christian church, meeting in ancient Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey). It was called by the emperor Constantine I, an unbaptized catechumen, who presided over the opening session and took part in the discussions.

Meeting at Nicaea in present-day Turkey, the council established the equality of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in the Holy Trinity and asserted that only the Son became incarnate as Jesus Christ. The Arian leaders were subsequently banished from their churches for heresy.





The son, was born of the Holy Spirit, thus making him true a God. Without sin as he was made by the power of the Holy Spirit. Mary The Mother of God the Incarnate Word (Logos) gave birth to The Son Incarnate Word (Logos) by The Almighty Father (Supreme Logos)

He took on the flesh of Mankind, as Did His Mother as Mother of God, so that The Word could be revealed through them. And The New Covenant could be made, by the last sacrifice- one in which closed the chapter for the old not taking away one dot or tittle, from the laws of God, but to establish the Children of God that would then be made. As Christs Children. Although, through the passion after the 3rd day, he was risen into his ascension to His Father, to sit at His right hand, where he says he was from the beginning. (Before Abraham WAS, I AM) – he sits on the judgment seat, until the fullness of the righteous are complete and then he’s coming with the Sword. Not to bring peace, but to punish those who has done abominations against the Word (Logos) those who choose not to do the physical and spiritual works that was instructed of us. The ones who have done them to the T (Tee), according to how they are and firmly established will gain eternal life, granted new bodies made in the image of the one The Son of God was in. As ascension calls for the bodies to be of a higher spiritual essence. (haven’t you read; YE are Gods, Gods Children) —Psalm 82. Thus says the Lord, Ye are gods and children of the Most High. If we are gods, as children of God, then we should act like this. But, if we take away the divinity of us as children and that of His Son and Mother, then we go against the Commandment that says: Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.” (Ex. 20:12) – this commandment wasn’t just for our Earthly Parents, but our Heavenly Ones as well.

What the Nicene Council above, thought to create was a newer thought: different from all ancient culture and knowledge: they believe—

All are equal and that There’s ONLY one God, The Father and his only begotten Son, and He was Born through the immaculate conception which shows his divinity, but only half, so he’s not technically a full God, only God the Father is God. And The Holy Spirit is God as The Fathers Spirit that is in them all. Which makes the trinity. But, since The Son in this case would be half flesh of a Mother as a Human and not divine, he suffers and is condemned then raised up and then will come again to judge the living and the dead. And in the second coming he will lift those up and condemn the rest, and those he lifts up they don’t have to keep all the laws and commandments because they have been saved by grace and not by their physical and spiritual works to deserve it.

Similar stories, but one seems to gain the prize without the hard work to suffer the gain. And the other suffered until the end, for fear (respect) of their Creator. By making all 3 (1) entity instead of Gods (3) —3 as Gods Family— they have made the perfect imperfect by imperfecting the original Word of God.

Which in John 1:1 says:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”

Seems very clear that The Word is Gods Son, seated on the Right Side, and The Word his Son was God. (A God, because His Father is God (A God) & The Holy Spirit His Mother (A God)

Commandment 3 \”Therefore I say to you, every blasphemy said from the mouths of wicked men will be forgiven, but the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Wisdom) will not be forgiven of men who do this\” (Matthew 12:31).

[Jesus speaking] —Like do whatever you want, but never speak against My Mother [Blessed are you Mary The Mother of All.

Please check out the book of Wisdom books 1-19 https://bible.usccb.org/bible/wisdom/1

Last thing to consider: Is a Man a Woman? And is a Woman a Man? Or is a Child of them their equal? Or is there some kind of hierarchy to the Family Unit? Not based on demeaning behavior or what being the Head of the Son or Wife they don’t honor, but the true nature of the roles one of Honor. Is The Father a Mother? Or a Mother a Father or a Child both their parents Mother and Father? Wouldn’t that create some type of problem if there’s no one to answer to for the repercussions of actions? If everyone’s the parent, then who does what when? Is this order or chaos? Asking ourselves by our real life experiences do we find ourselves wondering which of the two paths we find to be more righteous in building moral character and charitable nature? And which seeks death? By the unrighteous acts to never to be condemned?

the Gaelic language, which comes from the old Irish Eriu

Esoteric Anthropology


Ireland is an island country located in the North Atlantic, bounded by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St. George’s Channel. It is known as Eire in the Gaelic language, which comes from the old Irish Eriu, the name of a daughter of the mother goddess Ernmas of the Tuatha De Danaan, the mystical pre-celtic race of Ireland.


12c. in Anglo-Norman, a Germanic-Celtic hybrid, with land (n.) + Celtic Eriu 


c. 1200, “the Irish people,” from Old English Iras “inhabitant of Ireland.” This is from Old Norse irar, which comes ultimately from Old Irish Eriu “Erin.” The reconstructed ancestry of this derives it from Old Gaelic Iveriu (Iberia) *Iverionem, ablative Iverione (Iberian) 

Kingdom of Iberia In Greco Roman geography Iberia Ancient Greek Ἰβηρία Iberia Latin Hiberia was an exonym foreign name for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli Georgian ქართლი known after its core province which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires notably the Sassanid and Roman empires Iberia centered on present day Eastern Georgia was bordered by Colchis in the west Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south

Places of interest
*The church of St. Martin, dating from the eighteenth century.
*The sixteenth-century chateau. -Répertoire national des élus les maires data.gouv.fr Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises in French

In Irish mythology Ériu Old Irish ˈeːrʲu modern Irish Éire ˈeːɾʲə listen daughter of Delbáeth and Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann was the eponymous matron goddess of Ireland. The name Ériu has been derived from reconstructed Archaic Irish Īweriū which is related to the ethnic name Iverni The University of Wales derives this from Proto Celtic Φīwerjon nominative singular Φīwerjō This is further derived from Proto Indo European piHwerjon [Friesian] fertile land or land of abundance from the adjective piHwer cognate with Ancient Greek píeira and Sanskrit pīvarī full abounding The Archaic Irish form was borrowed into Ancient Greek as Ἰέρνη Iernē [IER-NANI] -NANI OF NINEVEH [Inhabitants of ancient Nineveh before the Babylon Invasion] and Ἰουερνία Iouernia [I -O-NIA]-[LIONESS NINA] and into Latin Hibernia. (Iberiana- Iberian Peninsula) Penin Sula ~~~~Penin is a commune in the Pas de Calais department in the Hauts de France region of FranceThe chateau of Penin [see images above]


[See more about this land areas history titled: SAINT OMER]- will link here once complete 

From mid-15c. in reference to the Celtic language spoken in Ireland. Some Middle English forms of the word suggest influence of (or punning on) Old French irais, irois” “Iris” wrathful, bad-tempered” (literally “ire-ous”) and Irais “Irish.”

Meaning “temper, passion” is 1834, American English (first attested in writings of Davy Crockett), from the legendary pugnacity of the Irish. Irish-American (n.) is from 1816 (as an adjective from 1820). Wild Irish (late 14c.) originally were those not under English rule; ~~~~~>>>Black Irish in reference to those of Mediterranean appearance is from 1888

[See more about this subject above titled: TRUE HISTORY OF SAINT PATRICK-[will link here once complete]

Eriu is also connected to the beautiful Eshu. The beautiful Chief at the Crossroads of the living and the dead. There he is to judge. Weighing the hearts of man on the scales of Liber [Law] Libra [Found within The African Traditional Religion] 

Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary


From Ancient Greek καλάσινον (kalásinon)


Kyrie Kyrie Kalasinon [Elysian]

Kyrie a transliteration of Greek Κύριε vocative case of Κύριος Kyrios is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy also called the Kyrie eleison ˈkɪəri.eɪ ɪˈleɪ.ɪsɒn sən KEER ee ay il AY iss on ən Ancient Greek Κύριε ἐλέησον romanized Kýrie eléēson lit Lord have mercy

In the Bible

Further information Chesed and Eleos

ELEOS: In ancient Athens Eleos Ancient Greek Ἔλεος m or Elea was the personification of mercy clemency compassion and pity the counterpart of the Roman goddess Clementia Pausanias described her as among all the gods the most useful to human life in all its vicissitudes
Eleos: Personification of Mercy and compassion. 

Nyx and Erebus
Moros Keres Thanatos Hypnos Oneiroi Momus Oizys Hesperides Moirai Nemesis Apate Geras Eris Philotes Styx Dolos PonosEuphrosyne Epiphron Continentia Petulantia Pertinacia

Clementia Misericordia

Statius in Thebaid (1st century) describes the altar to Clementia in Athens (treating Eleos as feminine based on the grammatical gender in Latin): “There was in the midst of the city [of Athens] an altar belonging to no god of power; gentle Clementia (Clemency) [Eleos] had there her seat, and the wretched made it sacred

CHESED: Chesed Hebrew חֶסֶד also Romanized ḥesed is a Hebrew word that means kindness or love between people specifically of the devotional piety of people towards God as well as of love or mercy of God towards humanity. It is frequently used in Psalms in the latter sense, where it is traditionally translated “loving kindness. In Biblical Theology: it is used for love or charity between people. Chesed in this latter sense of ‘charity’ is considered a virtue on its own, and also for its contribution to tikkun olam (repairing the world). It is also considered the foundation of many religious commandments practiced especially “inner” [esoteric] commandments. Chesed is also one of the ten Sephirot on the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. It is given the association of kindness and love, and is the first of the emotive attributes of the sephirot.

Etymology and translations

The root chasad has a primary meaning of eager and ardent desire used both in the sense good kind and shame contempt The noun chesed inherits both senses on one hand zeal love kindness towards someone and on the other zeal ardour against someone envy reproach In its positive is used of mutual benevolence mercy or pity between people of devotional piety of people towards God as well as the grace favour or mercy of God towards people. 

It occurs throughout the scriptures the majority of cases (149 times), the King James Bible (KJV) translation is mercy, following the Septuagint (LXX) eleos. Less frequent translations are: kindness (40 times), lovingkindness (30 times), goodness (12 times), kindly (five times), merciful (four times), favour (three times) and good, goodliness, pity (once each). Only two instances of the noun in its negative sense are in the text, translated reproach in Proverbs 14:34, and wicked thing in Leviticus 20:17

The translation of loving kindness in KJV is derived from the Coverdale Bible of 1535. This particular translation is used exclusively of chesed used of the benign attitude of KYRIE (“the LORD”) or Elohim (“God”) towards his chosen, primarily invoked in Psalms (23 times), but also in the prophets, four times in Jeremiah, twice in Isaiah 63:7 and once in Hosea 2:19. While lovingkindness is now considered somewhat archaic, it is part of the traditional rendition of Psalms in English Bible translations.

The Septuagint has mega eleos ‘great mercy’, rendered as Latin misericordia. As an example of the use of chesed in Psalms, consider its notable occurrence at the beginning of Psalm 51 (חָנֵּנִי אֱלֹהִים כְּחַסְדֶּךָ, lit. ‘be favourable to me, Elohim, as your chesed’):

ἐλέησόν με ὁ θεός κατὰ τὸ μέγα ἔλεός σου (LXX)
Miserere mei, Deus, secundum misericordiam tuam (Vulgate)
“God, haue thou merci on me; bi thi greet merci.” (Wycliffe 1388)
“Haue mercy vpon me (o God) after thy goodnes” (Coverdale Bible 1535)
“Haue mercie vpon mee, O God, according to thy louing kindnesse” (KJV 1611)
“Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness” (KJV 1769, RV 1885, ASV 1901)
“Favour me, O God, according to Thy kindness” (YLT 1862)
“Have mercy on me, O God, according to thy steadfast love” (RSV 1952)
“Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love” (NRSV 1989)
In Judaism, love is often used as a shorter English translation. Religious Theologian Daniel Elazar has suggested that chesed cannot easily be translated into English, but that it means something like ‘loving covenant obligation’. Other suggestions include grace and compassion.


The world rests upon three things: Instructions for Mankind, service to God, and bestowing kindness” –Chesed is the CORE ethical virtue.

The Instructions for Mankind: Begin and End with Chesed:

Qualities of chesed:
love God so completely that one will never forsake his service for any reason
provide a child with all the necessities of their sustenance and love the child
circumcise a child [8th day-science proves why the 8th day from birth this is the safest]
visiting and healing the sick
giving charity to the poor
offering hospitality to strangers
attending to the dead
bringing a bride to the chuppah marriage ceremony
making peace between a person and another human being.
***A person who embodies chesed is known as a chasid (hasid, חסיד), one who is faithful to the covenant and who goes “above and beyond that which is normally required” and a number of groups throughout Jewish history which focus on going “above and beyond” have called themselves chasidim. These groups include the Hasideans of the Second Temple period, the Maimonidean Hasidim of medieval Egypt and Palestine, the Chassidei Ashkenaz in medieval Europe, and the Hasidic movement which emerged in eighteenth century Eastern Europe.

Meaning of ‘charity’, and a “chesed institution” in refers to any charitable organization run by religious groups or individuals. Charitable organizations described as “chesed institutions” include:

▫️dedicated to visiting and caring for the sick and their relatives
an institution dedicated to (‘providing kindness’), often with free loan funds or by lending or giving away particular types of items (toys, clothes, medical equipment, etc.)
▫️Organizations typically provide free services for emergency medical dispatch and ambulance transport (EMTs and p – organizations that perform religious care for the deceased, and often provide logistical help to their families relating to autopsies, transport of the body, emergency family travel, burial, running a Shiva home, and caring for mourners
▫️Friendship– organizations going by this name typically provide free roadside assistance and emergency help with mechanical or structural problems in private homes
▫️Guardian groups – community watch groups

Bringing clarity to a perplexing diagram Luke 11

The Lord’s Prayer
He was praying in a certain place and when he had finished one of his disciples said to him Lord [KYRIE] teach us to pray just as John taught his disciples
He said to them When you pray say: 
Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth [Crown Keter], [Wisdom Chochma (Breath/Wind/Spirit/Energy/Chi/Ka], [Understanding Binah], [Mercy Lovingkindness Chesed], [Strength, Gevurah], [Beauty, Tiferet], [Practice, Victory Netzach], [Theo, Empathy, Hod], [Foundation & Kingdom & SovereigntyYesod, Malkhut]

Father hallowed be your name
your kingdom come
Give us each day our daily bread
and forgive us our sins
for we ourselves forgive everyone in debt to us
and do not subject us to the final test

The first three of the ten sephirot are the attributes of the intellect, while chesed is the first sephira of the attribute of action. In the kabbalistic Tree of life, its position is below Chokhmah, across from Gevurah and above Netzach. It is usually given four paths: to chokhmah, gevurah, tiphereth, and netzach

The Bahir states, “What is the fourth (utterance): The fourth is the righteousness of God, His mercies and kindness with the entire world. This is the right hand of God.” Chesed manifests God’s absolute, unlimited benevolence and kindness.
The angelic order of this sphere is the Hashmallim, ruled by the Archangel Zadkiel. The opposing Qliphah is represented by the demonic order Gamchicoth (or Gha’agsheblah), ruled by the Archdemon Astaroth.

The prayer Kyrie eleison Lord have mercy derives from a Biblical phrase Greek ἐλέησόν με κύριε have mercy on me Lord is the Septuagint translation of the phrase חָנֵּנִי יְהוָה found often in Psalms 6:2, 9:13, 31:9, 86:3, 123:3

In the New Testament the Greek phrase occurs three times in Matthew

Matthew 15:22 the Canaanite woman cries out to Jesus Have mercy on me O Lord Son of David Ἐλέησόν με κύριε υἱὲ Δαβίδ

Matthew 17:15 Lord have mercy on my son Κύριε ἐλέησόν μου τὸν υἱόν

Matthew 20:30 two unnamed blind men call out to Jesus Lord have mercy on us Son of David Ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς κύριε υἱὸς Δαβίδ

In the Parable of the Publican and the Pharisee Luke 18:9-14 the despised tax collector who cries out Lord have mercy on me a sinner is contrasted with the smug Pharisee who believes he has no need for forgiveness

Luke 17:13 has epistates master instead of kyrios lord Ἰησοῦ ἐπιστάτα ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς being less suggestive of the kyrios lord used as euphemism for YHWH in the Septuagint There are other examples in the text of the gospels without the kyrie lord e.g Mark 10:46 where blind Bartimaeus cries out Jesus Son of David have mercy on me In the biblical text the phrase is always personalized by an explicit object such as on me on us on my son while in the Eucharistic celebration it can be seen more as a general expression of confidence in God’s love.

In Eastern Christianity

See also Hesychasm

The phrase Kýrie eléison Greek Κύριε ἐλέησον whether in Greek or in other languages is one of the most oft repeated phrases in Eastern Christianity including the Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches The Greek phrase Kýrie eléison is for instance extensively used in the Coptic Egyptian Christian liturgy which uses both the Coptic and the Greek languages

The various litanies frequent in Eastern Orthodox rites generally have Lord have mercy as their response either singly or triply Some petitions in these litanies will have twelve or even forty repetitions of the phrase as a response

The phrase is also the origin of the Jesus Prayer beloved by eastern Christians as a foundation of personal prayer and is increasingly popular among some Western Christians

The prayer is simultaneously a petition and a prayer of thanksgiving an acknowledgement of what God has done what God is doing and what God will continue to do It is refined in the Parable of The Publican Luke 18:9–14 God have mercy on me a sinner which shows more clearly its connection with the Jesus Prayer

In Rome, the Liturgy was first celebrated in Greek. Josef Jungmann suggests the Kyrie in the Roman Mass is best seen as a vestige of a litany at the beginning of the Mass, like that of some Eastern churches, retained after Latin became normative.[3]: 335f.

As early as the sixth century, Pope Gregory the Great noted that there were differences in the way in which eastern and western churches sang Kyrie. In the eastern churches all sing it at the same time, whereas in the western church the clergy sing it and the people respond. Also the western church sang Christe eléison as many times as Kyrie eléison. In the Roman Rite liturgy, this variant, Christe, eléison, is a transliteration of Greek Χριστέ, ἐλέησον.

“Kyrie, eléison” (“Lord, have mercy”) may also be used as a response of the people to intentions mentioned in the Prayer of the Faithful. Since 1549, Anglicans have normally sung or said the Kyrie in English. In the 1552 Book of Common Prayer, the Kyrie was inserted into a recitation of the Ten Commandments. Modern revisions of the Prayer Book have restored the option of using the Kyrie without the Commandments. Other denominations, such as Lutheranism, also use “Kyrie, eléison” in their liturgies.

Kyrie is [Lord] Eleison is [Mercy]

Interesting Ireland etymology is Erie like Kyrie and Calais was a place known to connect to the people, but situated in France today.

Calais is Kalesion

The Vatican says this

Kyrie Eleison [The Lord have Mercy] then Christi Eleison [Christ have Mercy]

Irish [Kyri] —also Iris like the Lilly of the nile valley & the Fleur de lis [Lilly] —

You can’t find the mysteries without studying scripture

Kyrie as section of the Mass ordinary


See also Mass ordinary I Kyrie

In the Tridentine Mass form of the Roman Rite Kýrie eléison is sung or said three times followed by a threefold Christe eléison and by another threefold Kýrie eléison Collectively the nine invocations are said to unite the petitions of the faithful to those of the nine choirs of angels in heaven In the Paul VI Mass form in the interests of brevity each invocation is made only once by the celebrating priest a deacon if present or else by a cantor with a single repetition each time by the congregation though the Roman Missal allows for the Kyrie to be sung with more than six invocations thus allowing the traditional use Even if Mass is celebrated in the vernacular the Kyrie may be in Greek This prayer occurs directly following the Penitential Rite or is incorporated in that rite as one of the three alternative forms provided in the Roman Missal The Penitential Rite and Kyrie may be replaced by the Rite of Sprinkling

In modern Anglican churches it is common to say or sing either the Kyrie or the Gloria in Excelsis Deo but not both In this case the Kyrie may be said in penitential seasons like Lent and Advent while the Gloria is said the rest of the year Catholics however usually follow Roman norms in this as in most other liturgical matters


Kyrie eléison (Κύριε, ἐλέησον)

Lord, have mercy

Christe eléison (Χριστέ, ἐλέησον)

Christ, have mercy


Thank God for those who know the TRUE ROMAN RITE  bless those who stand against the fallacies of man’s doing that choose to erase what’s sacred and profane it.

Bless them for their courage under all odds to keep the truth alive even through the expressions of wisdom through song.

Kyrie Eleison

Christi Eleison

As it was in the beginning ever shall be world without end. Alleluia.

In the Tridentine Mass the Kyrie is the first sung prayer of the Mass ordinary It is usually but not always part of any musical setting of the Mass Kyrie movements often have a ternary ABA musical structure that reflects the symmetrical structure of the text Musical settings exist in styles ranging from Gregorian chant to folk Additionally the musician Judee Sill emulated the Greek Orthodox delivery of the Kyrie in her song The Donor on the album Heart Food

The band Mr Mister released their popular song Kyrie in 1985.

Use in litanies


The Kyrie serves as the beginning of litanies in the Roman Rite


The original pronunciation in Medieval Greek was ˈcyri.e eˈle.ison xrisˈte eˈle.ison just when the Byzantine Rite was in force The transliteration of ἐλέησον as eléison shows that the post classical itacist pronunciation of the Greek letter eta η is used Although the Greek words have seven syllables Ký ri e e lé i son pronunciations as six syllables Ký ri e e léi son or five Ký rie e léi son have been used

In Ecclesiastical Latin a variety of pronunciations are used the italianate ˈkiri.e eˈle.ison ˈkriste eˈle.ison having been proposed as a standard dubious discuss Text underlay in mediaeval and Renaissance music attests that Ký ri e léi son five syllables was the most common setting until perhaps the mid th century William Byrd’s Mass for Four Voices is a notable example of a musical setting originally written with five syllables in mind later altered for six syllables citation needed

The Mediaeval poetic form Kyrielle sometimes uses Kýrieléis an even more drastic four syllable form which is reduced to three syllables or even to kyrleis in the German Leise ˈlaɪzə

In the Suomi language of Finland the phrase is rendered kuria eläissäin punish guide me while I’m living id est not after death 16th century

Modern Catholic thought

The terms aggiornamento (bringing up to date) and ressourcement (light of the Gospel) figure significantly into the documents of Vatican II: “The Church carries the responsibility of scrutinizing the signs of the times and interpreting them in the light of the Gospel” (Gaudium et spes, 4). Louis Bouyer, a theologian at Vatican II, wrote of the distortion of the Eucharistic spirit of the Mass over the centuries, so that “one could find merely traces of the original sense of the Eucharist as a thanksgiving for the wonders God has wrought.” The General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM) notes that at the Council of Trent “manuscripts in the Vatican … by no means made it possible to inquire into ‘ancient and approved authors’ farther back than the liturgical commentaries of the Middle Ages … [But] traditions dating back to the first centuries, before the formation of the rites of East and West, are better known today because of the discovery of so many liturgical documents”. Consonant with these modern studies, theologians have suggested that there be a continuity in praise of God between the opening song and the praise of the Gloria. This is explained by Mark R. Francis of Catholic

Theological Union in Chicago, speaking of the Kyrie:

Its emphasis is not on us (our sinfulness) but on God’s mercy and salvific action in Jesus Christ. It could just as accurately be translated “O Lord, you are merciful!” Note that the sample tropes all mention what Christ has done for us, not how we have sinned. For example, “you were sent to heal the contrite,” “you have shown us the way to the Father,” or “you come in word and sacrament to strengthen us in holiness,” leading to further acclamation of God’s praises in the Gloria.

In this same line, Hans Urs von Balthasar calls for a renewal in our whole focus at the Eucharist:

We must make every effort to arouse the sense of community within the liturgy, to restore liturgy to the ecclesial plane, where individuals can take their proper place in it…. Liturgical piety involves a total turning from concern with one’s inner state to the attitude and feeling of the Church. It means enlarging the scope of prayer, so often narrow and selfish, to embrace the concerns of the whole Church and, indeed – as in the Our Father – of God.”

In the New Dictionary of Sacramental Worship, the need to establish communion is reinforced as it quotes the GIRM to the effect that the purpose of the introductory rites is “to ensure that the faithful who come together as one establish communion and dispose themselves to listen properly to God’s word and to celebrate the Eucharist worthily” (GIRM, 46, emphasis added).

In addition to the original Greek and the local vernacular, many Christian communities use other languages, especially where the prayer is repeated often.

Afrikaans: Here, ontferm U

Albanian: O Zot ki mëshirë

Amharic, Ge’ez and Tigrinya: ኪርያላይሶን

Arabic: يا رب ارحم (Yā Rabbe Erḥam)

Armenian: Տէր, ողորմեա (Ter voġormya)

Batak: Debata, Asima rohaM

Basque: Erruki zakizkigu, Jauna

Belarusian: Госпадзе (Пане), зьмілуйся (Hospadzie (Panie), źmiłujsia, Hospad’zie (Panie), z’miluysia)

Bulgarian: Господи, помилуй (Gospodi, pomiluj)

Catalan: Senyor, tingueu pietat


Protestant:(traditional:) 求主憐憫 (simplified:) 求主怜悯 (Mandarin pinyin: qiúzhǔ lián mǐn; Cantonese jyutping: kau4 zyu2 lin4 man5; Min: kiuchu lian bin)

Catholic:(traditional:) 上主求祢垂憐 (simplified:) 上主求祢垂怜 (Mandarin pinyin: shàngzhǔ qiú nǐ suílián; Cantonese jyutping: soeng6 zyu2 kau4 nei5 seoi4 lin4; Min: siōng-chú kiû lí sûi-lîn)

Church Slavonic: Господи Помилуй (Gospodi pomilui)

Croatian: Gospodine, smiluj se

Czech: Pane, smiluj se

Danish: Herre, forbarm Dig

Dutch: Heer, ontferm U

English: Lord, have mercy

Esperanto: Sinjoro, kompatu nin.

Estonian: Issand, halasta

Filipino (Cebuano): Ginoo, kaloy-i kami

Filipino (Ilocano): Apo, Maasi Ka

Filipino (Kapampangan): Guinú, pakalulù

Filipino (Tagalog): Panginoón, maawa ka

Filipino (Bikol): Kagurangnan, maherak ka

Finnish: Herra armahda

French: Seigneur, prends pitié

German: Herr, erbarme Dich

Georgian: უფალო, შეგვიწყალენ (Up’alo, šegvitsk’alen)

Gaelic (Scotland): A Thighearna, dèan tròcair oirnn

Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰 𐌰𐍂𐌼𐌰𐌹𐍃 (Fráuja armáis)

Ancient Greek: Κύριε ἐλέησον (Kúrie eléêson)

Modern Greek: Κύριε ελέησον (Kírie eléison)

Guarani: Oré Poriahú verekó, Ñandejara

Hebrew: אדון רחם נא (Adon raḥem na)

Hill Mari: Йымы, жӓлаемӓ

Hungarian: Uram, irgalmazz

Icelandic: Drottinn, miskunna þú oss

Indonesian: Tuhan, kasihanilah kami. In the Eastern Orthodox litani : Tuhan kasihanilah

Gaelic: A Thiarna, déan trócaire orainn

Italian: Signore, pietà


Catholic: 主よ、憐み給え (しゅよ、あわれみたまえ) (Shuyo, awaremi-tamae).

Eastern Orthodox litany: 主、憐れめよ (Shu, awaremeyo).

Javanese: Gusti, mugi melasi

Korean: 주님, 자비를 베푸소서 (Junim, jabireul bepusoseo)

Kreyol: Seyè, pran pitye

Kinyarwanda: Nyagasani, tubabarire

Latin: Domine, miserere nobis

Latvian: Kungs, apžēlojies

Lithuanian: Viešpatie, pasigailėk

Macedonian: Господи, помилуј (Gospodi, pomiluj)

Malagasy: Tompo o, mamindrà fo

Bahasa Melayu: Tuhan, kasihanilah kami

Malayalam: കർത്താവെ കനിയണമേ (Karthave Kaniyaname)

Māori: E te Ariki, kia aroha mai

Meadow Mari: Юмо серлаге (Yumo serlage)

Maltese: Mulej ħniena

Northern Ndebele: Nkosi, sihawukele

Norwegian: Herre, miskunne Deg

Persian: پروردگارا ، به ما رحم كن

Polish: Panie, zmiłuj się

Portuguese: Senhor, tende piedade

Romanian: Doamne, miluieşte

Russian: Господи, помилуй (Gospodi, pomiluj)

Samoan: Le Ali’i e, alofa mai

Sanskrit: पते, दयस्व (Páte, dáyasva)

Sepedi (Northern Sotho): Morena, re gaugele

Serbian: Господи, помилуј (Gospodi, pomiluj)

Shona: Mambo tinzwireiwo tsitsi

Slovak: Pane, zmiluj sa

Slovene: Gospod, usmili se

Spanish: Señor, ten piedad

Swahili: Bwana utuhurumie.

Swedish: Herre, förbarma Dig

Syriac: ܡܳܪܰܢ ܐܶܬ݂ܪܰܚܰܡ (Moran eṯraḥam)

Tamil: Aandavarae irakkamaayirum

Telugu : Prabhuva, kanikarinchumu

Thai: พระผู้เป็นเจ้า โปรดเมตตาเทอญ

Turkish: Rabbim, bize merhamet eyle

Ukrainian: Господи, помилуй (Hospody, pomyluj)

Vandalic: Froia arme

Vietnamese: Xin Chúa thương xót chúng con

Welsh: Arglwydd, trugarha wrthym


Definitions for Medieval Christian Liturgy: Kyrie eleison

Jungmann, J. The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development. New York 1951

Kyrie eleison, kyrie eleison / Kyrie eleison, eleison / Eleison, eleison / Kyrie eleison, kyrie eleison”. Genius

Flynn, Gabriel; Murray, Paul D, eds. (2011). Ressourcement: A Movement for Renewal in Twentieth-Century Catholic Theology. Chapter 24, Ressourcement and Vatican II. Oxford.

Fortescue, Adrian. “Kyrie Eleison.” The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910.


Scriptural Doctrine

The Scriptural account of the origin of man is contained in Genesis i. 26, 27, “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.” And Gen. ii. 7, “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”

Two things are included in this account; first that man’s body was formed by the immediate intervention of God. It did not grow; nor was it produced by any process of development. Secondly, the soul was derived from God. He breathed into man “the breath of life,” that is, that life which constituted him a man, a living creature bearing the image of God.

Many have inferred from this language that the soul is an emanation from the divine essence; particula spiritus divini in corpore inclusa. This idea was strenuously resisted by the Christian fathers, and rejected by the Church, as inconsistent with the nature of God. It assumes that the divine essence is capable of division; that his essence can be communicated without his attributes, and that it can be degraded as the souls of fallen men are degraded. —Delitzsch’s “Biblical Psychology” in T. and T. Clark’s “Foreign Library,” and Auberlen in Herzog’s “Encyclopädie,” article “Geist der Menschen.”


Aka: Joseph Calasanctius and Iosephus a Mater Dei, was a Spanish Catholic priest, educator and the founder of the Pious Schools, providing free education to the sons of the poor, and the religious order that ran them, commonly known as the Piarists. He was a close friend of the renowned astronomer Galileo Galilei. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church.

11 September 1557
Peralta de la Sal, Kingdom of Aragon, Crown of Aragon
15 August 1648 (aged 90)
Rome, Papal States
Venerated in
Catholic Church
7 August 1748, Rome, Papal States by Pope Benedict XIV
16 July 1767, Rome, Papal States by Pope Clement XIII
Major shrine
San Pantaleo, Rome
August 25
August 27
(Pre-1969 General Roman Calendar)

Calasanz was born at the Castle of Calasanz near Peralta De La Sal in the Kingdom of Aragon, on September 11, 1556, the youngest of the eight children, and second son, of Pedro de Calasanz y de Mur, an infanzón (minor nobleman) and town mayor, and María Gastón y de Sala. He had two sisters, Marta and Cristina. His parents gave him a good education at home and then at the elementary school of Peralta. In 1569, he was sent for classical studies to a college in Estadilla run by the friars of the Trinitarian Order. [1] While there, at the age of 14, he determined that he wanted to become a priest. This calling, however, met with no support from his parents.

For his higher studies, Calasanz took up philosophy and law at the University of Lleida, where he earned the degree of Doctor of Laws cum laude. After those studies, he began a theological course at the University of Valencia and at Complutense University, then still at its original site in Alcalá de Henares.

Joseph\’s mother and brother having died, his father wanted him to marry and carry on the family. But a sickness in 1582 soon brought Joseph to the brink of the grave, which caused his father to relent. On his recovery, he was ordained a priest on December 17, 1583, by Hugo Ambrosio de Moncada, Bishop of Urgel.

During his ecclesiastical career in Spain, Calasanz held various offices in his native region. He began his ministry in the Diocese of Albarracín, where Bishop de la Figuera appointed him his theologian, confessor, synodal examiner, and procurator. When the bishop was transferred to Lleida, Calasanz followed him to the new diocese.

During that period, he spent several years in La Seu d\’Urgell. As secretary of the cathedral chapter, Calasanz had broad administrative responsibilities. In Claverol, he established a foundation that distributed food to the poor.

In October 1585, de la Figuera was sent as apostolic visitor to the Abbey of Montserrat and Calasanz accompanied him as his secretary.

The bishop died the following year and Calasanz left, though urgently requested to remain. He hurried to Peralta de Calasanz, only to be present at the death of his father. He was then called by the Bishop of Urgel to act as vicar general for the district of Tremp.


On September 15, 1616, the first public and free school in Frascati was started up on Calasanz\’ initiative. One year later, on March 6, 1617, Pope Paul V approved the Pauline Congregation of the Poor of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools, the first religious institute dedicated essentially to teaching, by his brief \”Ad ea per quae.\” On March 25, 1617, he and his fourteen assistants received the Piarist habit and became the first members of the new congregation. The habits were paid for by the Cardinal Protector Justiniani, who with his own hands invested Joseph Calasanz in the chapel of his palace. They were the very first priests to have as their primary ministry teaching in elementary schools.

Emphasizing love, not fear, St. Joseph wrote: \”if from the very earliest years, a child is instructed in both religion and letters, it can be reasonably hoped that his life will be happy.\”

While residing in Rome, Joseph endeavored to visit the seven principal churches of that city almost every evening, and also to honor the graves of the Roman martyrs. During one of the city\’s repeated plagues, a holy rivalry existed between him and St. Camillus in aiding the sick and in personally carrying away for burial the bodies of those who had been stricken. On account of his heroic patience and fortitude in the midst of trouble and persecution, he was called a marvel of Christian courage, a second Job.

During the following years, Calasanz established Pious Schools in various parts of Europe. In October 1628 he was a guest of the Conti di Segni family in Poli and there he founded the Pious Schools. After convincing the pope of the need to approve a religious order with solemn vows dedicated exclusively to the education of youth, the congregation was raised to that status on November 18, 1621, by a papal brief of Pope Gregory XV, under the name of Ordo Clericorum Regularium Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum (Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools).

The abbreviation \”Sch. P.\” following the name of the Piarist stands for Scholarum Piarum, Latin for \”of the Pious Schools\”. The Constitutions were approved on January 31, 1622, by Pope Gregory XV, and the order had all the privileges of the mendicant orders conferred upon it, Calasanz being recognized as superior general.

The Order of the Pious Schools was thus the last of the religious Orders of solemn vows approved by the Church. The Piarists, as do many religious, profess vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In addition, according to the wishes of St. Joseph, members of the Order also profess a fourth vow to dedicate their lives to the education of youth.

The concept of free education for the poor was not exclusive to Calasanz In the Duchy of Lorraine a similar project was being undertaken simultaneously by the Augustinians Peter Fourier and Alix Le Clerc whose educational heritage was carried to New France As recognized by Ludwig von Pastor Calasanz was the founder of the first free public school in modern Europe In both cases it was a revolutionary initiative a radical break with the class privileges that kept the masses marginalized and in poverty In the history of education Calasanz is an educator of the poor offering education free of charge to all classes of society without discrimination.

Calasanz displayed the same moral courage in his attitude to victims of the Inquisition such as Galileo and Campanella and in the acceptance of Jewish children in his schools where they were treated with the same respect as other pupils Similarly Protestant pupils were enrolled in his schools in Germany So great and universal was Calasanz\’s prestige that he was even asked by the Ottoman Empire to set up schools there a request which he could not to his regret fulfill due to a lack of teachers He organized and systematized a method of educating primary school pupils through progressive levels or cycles a system of vocational training and a system of public secondary education

In an era when no one else was interested in public education Calasanz managed to set up schools with a highly complex structure He was concerned with physical education and hygiene He addressed the subject in various documents and requested school directors to monitor children\’s health

Calasanz taught his students to read both in Latin and in the vernacular While maintaining the study of Latin he was a strong defender of vernacular languages and had textbooks including those used for teaching Latin written in the vernacular In that respect he was more advanced than his contemporaries

Calasanz placed great emphasis on the teaching of mathematics Training in mathematics and science was considered very important in his Pious schools both for pupils and teachers But Calasanz\’s main concern was undoubtedly the moral and Christian education of his students As both priest and educator he considered education to be the best way of changing society All his writing is imbued with his Christian ideals and the constitutions and regulations of the Pious schools were based on the same spirit Calasanz created an ideal image of a Christian teacher and used it to train the teachers who worked with him

Calasanz was the first educator to advocate the preventive method it is better to anticipate mischievous behaviour than to punish it This method was later developed by John Bosco the founder of the Salesian schools In terms of discipline and contrary to the prevailing philosophy of his own and subsequent eras Calasanz favored the mildest punishment possible While believing that punishment was necessary in certain cases he always preached moderation love and kindness as the basis of any discipline.

Relationship with Galileo and Campanella

At a time when humanistic studies ruled the roost, Calasanz sensed the importance of mathematics and science for the future and issued frequent instructions that mathematics and science should be taught in his schools and that his teachers should have a firmer grounding in those subjects. Calasanz was a friend of Galileo Galilei and sent some distinguished Piarists as disciples of the great scientist. He shared and defended his controversial view of the cosmos.

Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de\’ Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. Commonly referred to as Galileo, his name was pronounced /ˌɡælɪˈleɪ.oʊ ˌɡælɪˈleɪ.iˌ/ (GAL-ih-LAY-oh GAL-ih-LAY-ee, Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]). He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the \”father\” of observational astronomy, modern physics, the scientific method, and modern science.- Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History

Galileo Galilei – Founder of the Scientific Method and Modern Science

Francis Bacon was the first to formalize the concept of a true scientific method, but he didn\’t do so in a vacuum. The work of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) influenced Bacon tremendously
Novum Organum by Francis Bacon

When Galileo fell into disgrace, Calasanz instructed members of his congregation to provide him with whatever assistance he needed and authorized the Piarists to continue studying mathematics and science with him. Unfortunately, those opposed to Calasanz and his work used the Piarists\’ support and assistance to Galileo as an excuse to attack them. Despite such attacks, Calasanz continued to support Galileo. When, in 1637, Galileo lost his sight, Calasanz ordered the Piarist Clemente Settimi to serve as his secretary.

Calasanz brought the same understanding and sympathy that he had shown to Galileo to his friendship with the great philosopher Tommaso Campanella (1558–1639), one of the most profound and fertile minds of his time, producing famous philosophical works. Although he was highly controversial as well, Campanella maintained a strong and fruitful friendship with Calasanz.

The philosopher whose utopian visions proposed social reforms in which the education of the masses played an important part must have been a kindred spirit for Calasanz, who was already putting such utopian ideas into practice. Calasanz, with his courage and open-mindedness, invited the controversial thinker to Frascati to help teach philosophy to his teachers. Thus, Campanella, who had rallied to the support of Galileo, also came to the defense of Calasanz with his Liber Apologeticus.

We must ask ourselves has the scientific method greatly increased our understanding of the true nature of science or further complicate things by its modifications?