1Meanwhile, Joseph was led into Egypt. And Putiphar, a eunuch of Pharaoh, a leader of the army, an Egyptian man, purchased him from the hand of the Ishmaelites, by whom he was brought. 2And the Lord was with him, and he was a man who prospered in everything that he did. And he lived in the house of his lord, 3who knew very well that the Lord was with him, and that all the things that were done by him were directed by his hand. 4And Joseph found favor in the sight of his lord, and he ministered to him. And, having been placed in charge of everything by him, he governed the house that was entrusted to him and all the things that had been delivered to him. 5And the Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian, because of Joseph, and he multiplied all his substance, as much in the buildings, as in the fields.6Neither did he know anything other than the bread than the bread that he ate. Now Joseph was beautiful in form, and stately in appearance.
Joseph Given Charge of Egypt
37The counsel pleased Pharaoh and all his ministers.
38And he said to them, “Would we be able to find another such man, who is full of the Spirit of God?”39Therefore, he said to Joseph: “Because God has revealed to you all that you have said, would I be able to find anyone wiser and as much like you? 40You will be over my house, and to the authority of your mouth, all the people will show obedience. Only in one way, in the throne of the kingdom, will I go before you.” 41And again, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Behold, I have appointed you over the entire land of Egypt.” 42And he took the ring from his own hand, and he gave it into his hand. And he clothed him with a robe of fine linen, and he placed a necklace of gold around his neck. 43And he caused him to ascend upon his second swift chariot, with the herald proclaiming that everyone should bend their knee before him, and that they should know that he was governor over the entire land of Egypt. 44Likewise, the king said to Joseph: “I am Pharaoh: apart from your authority, no one will move hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.”45And he changed his name and called him, in the Egyptian tongue: ‘Savior of the world.’ And he gave him as a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis. And so Joseph went out into the land of Egypt.
Joseph Reveals His Identity
1Joseph was unable to restrain himself any longer, standing before so many. Therefore, he instructed that all should go outside, and that no stranger should be among them as they recognized one another. 2And he lifted up his voice with weeping, which the Egyptians heard, along with the entire house of Pharaoh. 3And he said to his brothers: “I am Joseph. Is my father still alive?” His brothers were unable to respond, being terrified by a very great fear.
4And he said to them mildly, “Approach toward me.” And when they had approached close by, he said: “I am Joseph, your brother, whom you sold into Egypt. 5Do not be afraid, and let it not seem to you to be a hardship that you sold me into these regions. For God sent me before you into Egypt for your salvation.
8Judah, your brothers will praise you. Your hand will be at the necks of your enemies; the sons of your father will reverence you.
9Judah is a lion’s young. You have gone up to the prey, my son. While resting, you have lain like a lion. And just like a lioness, who would rouse him?
10The scepter from Judah and the leader from his thigh will not be taken away, until he who will be sent arrives, and he will be the expectation of Gentiles.
11Tying his young colt to the vineyard, and his donkey, O my son, to the vine, he will wash his robe in wine, and his cloak in the blood of the grape.
12His eyes are more beautiful than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk.
22Joseph is a growing son, a growing son and stately to behold; the daughters run back and forth on the wall.
23But those who held darts, provoked him, and they contend with him, and they envied him.
24His bow sits in strength, and the bands of his arms and hands have been let loose by the hands of the mighty one of Jacob. From there he went forth as a pastor, the stone of Israel.
25The God of your father will be your helper, and the Almighty will bless you with the blessings of heaven above, with the blessings of the abyss that lies beneath, with the blessings of the breasts and of the womb.
26The blessings of your father are strengthened by the blessings of his fathers, until the desire of the hills of eternity shall arrive. May they be at the head of Joseph, and at the summit of the Nazarite, among his brothers.
St. Francesca Saverio Cabrini, Virgin, Foundress Of The Missionaries Of The Sacred Heart Of Jesus.
Born Maria Francesca Cabrini in Sant\’Angelo Lodigiano, Lombardy, Italy, on 15 July 1850, she was soon left an orphan. She wanted to enter a convent, but was refused because of her poor health. So she dedicated herself to running an orphanage instead. Soon she graduated as a teacher and, together with some companions, formed the first nucleus of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, under the protection of Saint Francis Xavier. When she eventually pronounced her religious vows, she also took his name.
Her Missionary Vocation
She understood that the modern world would be marked by huge migratory flows and by men, women, and children fleeing their homes to find peace and a better future. This is one of the characteristics of St. Frances Xavier Cabrini that emerges from the reflections of Pope Francis. In a Letter to the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Pope underlines how Saint Frances \”welcomed a special missionary vocation from God: to train and send out consecrated women to the whole world, with a limitless missionary horizon, not simply as auxiliaries of religious institutes or male missionaries, but with their own charism of feminine consecration, in full and total availability for collaboration with both local Churches and the various congregations that were dedicated to the proclamation of the Gospel ad gentes”.
Missionary work and Canonization
It was that missionary charism that brought her to the United States to assist Italian migrants who were seeking their fortune there. In the first of her many ocean crossings, she shared the discomfort, problems, and uncertainties of those who left everything in order to search for a better future elsewhere. Meanwhile, her charitable works continued to include caring for orphans and the sick. She set up homes and hospices in Italy, France, Spain, Great Britain, and all over the United States, Central America, Argentina, and Brazil. Proclaimed a saint by Pope Pius XII on the 7 July 1946, she was proclaimed \”Celestial Patroness of all Emigrants\” in 1950.
St Frances Xavier Cabrini died on 22 December 1917 in the hospital for migrants she herself had built in Chicago. Her mortal remains were later moved to Mother Cabrini High School in New York.
Saint John of the Cross, Priest and Doctor of the Church
John of the Cross
Spanish Catholic priest, friar, mystic, and saint.
How did St John of the Cross become a Doctor of the Church?
Beatified in 1675, he was canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII (r. 1724-1730) and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1926 by Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-1939)
St. John the Evangelist is known to be a patron saint of a prolific nature, but he is mainly identified as the patron saint of love, loyalty, friendships, and authors.
John was ordained a priest for the Carmelites in 1567. He loved solitude and contemplation and so considered entering the strictest of Orders, the Carthusians.
Quotes from John of the Cross
“The endurance of darkness is the preparation for great light.” “The soul that is quick to turn to speaking and conversing is slow to turn to God.” “It is best to learn to silence the faculties and to cause them to be still so that God may speak.” “Who teaches the soul if not God?”
He was a Spanish mystic and saint.
Doctor of the Church (Latin: doctor \”teacher\”), also referred to as Doctor of the Universal Church (Latin: Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis), is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints recognized as having made a significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing
Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often been connected to mystical theology, especially in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions.
The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul’s mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture (i.e., Lectio Divina).
Christian Mystics and Movements in the Early Church
Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35-c.107)
St. Polycarp (c.69-c.155)
Justin Martyr (c.105-c.165)
St. Antony (c.251-356)
Basil the Great (c.330-379)
St. Gregory I the Great (b. at Rome, c. 540; d. there, 604)
Catholic Mystics in the Mediaeval Church:
William of St.-Thierry (c.1085-1148)
Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
Hugh of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (b. in Saxony, 1096; d. at Paris, 1141)
Richard of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (d. at Paris, 1173)
Francis of Assisi (John Bernardone) (1182-1226)
Albertus Magnus (1206-1280)
Beatrice of Nazareth (1200-1268)
Mechthild of Magdeburg (1207-1282)
Bonaventure (John Fidanza) (1217-1274)
St. Bonaventure, Minister General of the Friars Minor (b. at Bagnorea, 1221; d. at Lyons, 1274)
St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1275)
Angela of Foligno (c.1248-1309)
St. Gertrude, a Benedictine (b. at Eisleben, 1256; d. at Helfta, Saxony, 1302)
Jan van Ruysbroeck (1293-1381)
Henry Suso (1295-1366)
Johannes Tauler (1300-1361)
Richard Rolle (1300-1349)
Birgitta (Brigida) Suecica of Sweden (1302-1373)
Walter Hilton (d. 1395)
Julian of Norwich (1342-1413?)
Catherine of Siena (1347-1380)
Famous Catholic Mystics 15th to 19th Century
St. Catherine of Genoa (1447-1510)
Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
St. John of the Cross (Juan de Yepes) (1542-1591)
Venerable Luis de Lapuente (b. at Valladolid, 1554; d. there, 1624)
St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622)
Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774-1824)
Saint Catherine Labouré b.1806 d. 1876
Twentieth Century Mystics
Saint Faustina 1905 – 1938
Saint Pio – Padre Pio b.1887
Founder of the contemplative “Order of Poor Ladies” with the help of Francis of Assisi, Clare spent the majority of her life in imitation of Francis and his order, seeking above all else a life of poverty and charity in the Christian mystic tradition. Canonized in 1255, Clare’s devotion to asceticism for herself and her order saw her in conflict with the Catholic Church on more than one occasion; however, she was ultimately praised by the church for her unwavering Catholic spirituality.
In recognizing her mystic qualities, the Catholic Church deemed Clare the patron saint of television in 1958, a title which celebrates her connection to the Holy Spirit, which was said to project a vision of the daily mass on the wall of her room when she was too sick to psychically attend. In a manner similar to her future mystic mentor, Claire of Assisi grew up a child of a wealthy family in Assisi. However, unlike Francis of Assisi, her ardent commitment to Catholic spirituality and contemplative living was evident at an early age. Perhaps taking after her mother, who was said to be a pious and god-fearing woman, Clare was seen as a young girl to be uninterested in the practices of the world at large, preferring mystic endeavors, such as mortification. This early desire to imitate the passion of Jesus can be seen as a starting point for her Catholic spirituality and a precursor to her eventual commitment to the life of a mystic. Soon after these early signs of devotion, Claire’s desire to pursue a contemplative life and achieve a mystic union with God took hold. When she was 18 years old, Clare heard Francis of Assisi preach at a local church. As he spoke, Clare felt the presence of the Holy Spirit burn inside of her. Being greatly inspired by his message, Clare requested that Francis help her grow stronger in her Catholic spirituality. In recognizing the sincerity that accompanied her words, Francis agreed to assist her. In what was another display of her devotion to the mystic and contemplative lifestyle that lay before her, Clare left her father’s house in secret in order to provisionally join an order of Benedictine nuns. When her father heard of this, he went to the covenant and attempted to physically remove her from the premises. However, Clare resisted, and with seemingly no other options, her father left her in peace. This courageous act further displayed Clare’s commitment to her Catholic spirituality, as she would soon enter into a welcomed life of contemplative living and austerity on her path to achieving a mystic union with God. As more people began to follow Clare’s example of shunning the world at large in order achieve a mystic union with God, Francis decided that Clare and those who followed her should take on an order of their own. With their stationing by Francis at an adjoining building of the Chapel at San Domino, the contemplative “Order of Poor Ladies” was born. Early on, it was the intention of Clare and her covenant to live in imitation of the mystic order of the Franciscans, which meant a life of poverty and charity. However, the church at this time felt this was not suitable for women, and as such attempted to deny the right of the order to live a life of poverty. Finding this incompatible with her Catholic spirituality and mystic endeavors, Clare, in a meeting with Pope Gregory XI, remarked that in living in poverty, she was fulfilling her obligation to Jesus Christ. This desire to follow in the mystic and contemplative tradition of the Franciscans inspired the pontiff, and led to the granting of her request. Towards the end of her life, Clare experienced perhaps her most famous mystic endeavor, as she is said to have thwarted the advance of rival forces intent on terrorizing the chapel simply by lifting a ciborium over her head. This final mystic experience grew Clare’s reputation as a woman of great Catholic spirituality. The heroism displayed in this action solidified Clare as a woman of great and love and devotion, which may be said to be her greatest imitation of the life of Jesus.
Other Catholic Doctors of The Church
As of 2022, the Catholic Church has named 37 Doctors of the Church. Of these, the 18 who died before the Great Schism of 1054 are also held in high esteem by the Eastern Orthodox Church, although it does not use the formal title \”Doctor of the Church\”.
Among the 37 recognised Doctors, 28 are from the West and nine from the East; four are women and thirty-three are men; one abbess, three nuns, one tertiary associated with a religious order; 19 bishops, twelve priests, one deacon; 27 from Europe, three from Africa, and seven from Asia. More Doctors (twelve) lived in the fourth century than any other; eminent Christian writers of the first, second, and third centuries are usually referred to as the Ante-Nicene Fathers. The shortest period between death and nomination was that of Alphonsus Liguori, who died in 1787 and was named a Doctor in 1871 – a period of 84 years; the longest was that of Irenaeus, which took more than eighteen centuries. Some other churches have similar categories with various names. Before the 16th century In the Western church four outstanding \”Fathers of the Church\” attained this honour in the early Middle Ages: Gregory the Great, Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, and Jerome. The \”four Doctors\” became a commonplace notion among scholastic theologians, and a decree of Boniface VIII (1298) ordering their feasts to be kept as doubles throughout the Latin Church is contained in his sixth book of Decretals (cap. \”Gloriosus\”, de relique. et vener. sanctorum, in Sexto, III, 22). In the Byzantine Church, three Doctors were pre-eminent: John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzus. The feasts of these three saints were made obligatory throughout the Eastern Empire by Leo VI the Wise. A common feast was later instituted in their honour on 30 January, called \”the feast of the three Hierarchs\”. In the Menaea for that day it is related that the three Doctors appeared in a dream to John Mauropous, Bishop of Euchaita, and commanded him to institute a festival in their honour, in order to put a stop to the rivalries of their votaries and panegyrists. This was under Alexius Comnenus (1081–1118; see \”Acta SS.\”, 14 June, under St. Basil, c. xxxviii). But sermons for the feast are attributed in manuscripts to Cosmas Vestitor, who flourished in the tenth century. The three are as common in Eastern art as the four are in Western. Durandus (i, 3) remarks that Doctors should be represented with books in their hands. In the West analogy led to the veneration of four Eastern Doctors, Athanasius of Alexandria being added to the three hierarchs
James studied theology with Saint John of Capistrano. Ordained in 1420, James began a preaching career that took him all over Italy and through 13 Central and Eastern European countries. This extremely popular preacher converted many people–250,000 at one estimate–and helped spread devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus. His sermons prompted numerous Catholics to reform their lives, and many men joined the Franciscans under his influence.
With John of Capistrano, Albert of Sarteano, and Bernardine of Siena, James is considered one of the “four pillars” of the Observant movement among the Franciscans. These friars became known especially for their preaching.
To combat extremely high interest rates, James established montes pietatis—literally, mountains of charity—nonprofit credit organizations that lent money on pawned objects at very low rates.
Not everyone was happy with the work James did. Twice assassins lost their nerve when they came face to face with him. James died in 1476, and was canonized in 1726.
THE GOSPEL OF THE BIRTH OF MARY. CHAPTER I. 1 The Parentage of Mary. Joachim her father, and Anna her mother, go to Jerusalem to the feast of the dedication. Issachar, the high priest, reproaches Joachim for being childless. THE blessed and ever glorious Virgin Mary, sprung from the royal race and family of David, was born in the city of Nazareth, and educated at Jerusalem, in the temple of the Lord. 2 Her father\’s name was Joachim, and her mother\’s Anna. The family of her father was of Galilee and the city of Nazareth. The family of her mother was of Bethlehem. 3 Their lives were plain and right in the sight of the Lord, pious and faultless before men; for they divided all their substance into three parts; 4 One of which they devoted to the temple and officers of the temple; another they distributed among strangers, and persons in poor circumstances; and the third they reserved for themselves and the uses of their own family.
CHAPTER II. 7 5 In this manner they lived for about twenty years chastely, in the favour of God, and the esteem of men, without any children. 6 But they vowed, if God should favour them with any issue, they would devote it to the service of the Lord; on which account they went at every feast in the year to the temple of the Lord. 7 And it came to pass, that when the feast of the dedication drew near, Joachim, with some others of his tribe, went up to Jerusalem, and at that time, Isachar was high−priest; 8 Who, when he saw Joachim along with the rest of his neighbours, bringing his offerings, despised both him and his offerings, and asked him, 9 Why he, who had no children, would presume to appear among those who had? Adding, that his offerings could never be acceptable to God, who was judged by him unworthy to have children; the Scripture having said, Cursed is every one who shall not beget a male in Israel. 10 He further said, that he ought first to be free from that curse by begetting some issue, and then come with his offerings into the presence of God. 11 But Joachim being much confounded with the shame of such reproach, retired to the shepherds who were with the cattle in their pastures; 12 For he was not inclined to return home, lest his neighbours, who were present and heard all this from the high−priest, should publicly reproach him in the same manner. CHAPTER II. 1 An angel appears to Joachim, 9 and informs him that Anna shall conceive and bring forth a daughter, who shall be called Mary, 11 be brought up in the temple, 12 and while yet a virgin, in a way unparalleled, bring forth the Son of God: 13 Gives him a sign, 14 and departs.
CHAPTER II. 8 BUT when he had been there for some time, on a certain day when he was alone, the angel of the Lord stood by him with a prodigious light. 2 To whom, being troubled at the appearance, the angel who had appeared to him, endeavouring to compose him, said: 3 Be not afraid, Joachim, nor troubled at the sight of me, for I am an angel of the Lord sent by him to you, that I might inform you that your prayers are heard, and your alms ascended in the sight of God. 4 For he hath surely seen your shame, and heard you unjustly reproached for not having children: for God is the avenger of sin, and not of nature; 5 And so when he shuts the womb of any person, he does it for this reason, that he may in a more wonderful manner again open it, and that which is born appear to be not the product of lust, but the gift of God. 6 For the first mother of your nation, Sarah, was she not barren even till her eightieth year: and yet even in the end of her old age brought forth Isaac, in whom the promise was made of a blessing to all nations. 7 Rachel, also, so much in favour with God, and beloved so much by holy Jacob, continued barren for a long time, yet afterwards was the mother of Joseph, who was not only governor of Egypt, but delivered many nations from perishing with hunger. 8 Who among the judges was more valiant than Sampson, or more holy than Samuel? And yet both their mothers were barren. 9 But if reason will not convince you of the truth of my words, that there are frequent conceptions in advanced years, and that those who were barren have brought forth to their great surprise; therefore Anna your wife shall bring you a daughter, and you shall call her name Mary; 10 She shall, according to your vow, be devoted to the Lord from her infancy, and be filled with the Holy Ghost from her mother\’s womb;
CHAPTER III. 9 11 She shall neither eat nor drink any thing which is unclean, nor shall her conversation be without among the common people, but in the temple of the Lord; that so she may not fall under any slander or suspicion of what is bad. 12 So in the process of her years, as she shall be in a miraculous manner born of one that was barren, so she shall, while yet a virgin, in a way unparalleled, bring forth the Son of the most High God, who shall, be called Jesus, and, according to the signification of his name, be the Saviour of all nations. 13 And this shall be a sign to you of the things which I declare, namely, when you come to the golden gate of Jerusalem, you shall there meet your wife Anna, who being very much troubled that you returned no sooner, shall then rejoice to see you. 14 When the angel had said this, he departed from him. CHAPTER III. 1 The angel appears to Anna; 2 tells her a daughter shall be born unto her, 3 devoted to the service of the Lord in the temple, 5, who, being a virgin, and not knowing man, shall bring forth the Lord, 6 and gives her a sign therefore. 8 Joachim and Anna meet, and rejoice, 10 and praise the Lord. 11 Anna conceives, and brings forth a daughter called Mary. AFTERWARDS the angel appeared to Anna his wife, saying; Fear not, neither think that which you see is a spirit; 2 For I am that angel who hath offered up your prayers and alms before God, and am now sent to you, that I may inform you, that a daughter will be born unto you, who shall be called Mary, and shall be blessed above all women. 3 She shall be, immediately upon her birth, full of the grace of the Lord, and shall continue during the three years of her weaning in her father\’s
CHAPTER III. 10 house, and afterwards, being devoted to the service of the Lord, shall not depart from the temple, till she arrive to years of discretion. 4 In a word, she shall there serve the Lord night and day in fasting and prayer, shall abstain from every unclean thing, and never know any man; 5 But, being an unparalleled instance without any pollution or defilement, and a virgin not knowing any man, shall ring forth a son, and a maid shall bring forth the Lord, who both by his grace and name and works, shall be the Saviour of the world. 6 Arise therefore, and go up to Jerusalem, and when you shall come to that which is called the golden gate (because it is gilt with gold), as a sign of what I have told you, you shall meet your husband, for whose safety you have been so much concerned. 7 When therefore you find these things thus accomplished, believe that all the rest which I have told you, shall also undoubtedly be accomplished. 8 According therefore to the command of the angel, both of them left the places where they were, and when they came to the place specified in the angels prediction, they met each other. 9 Then, rejoicing at each other\’s vision, and being fully satisfied in the promise of a child, they gave due thanks to the Lord, who exalts the humble. 10 After having praised the Lord, they returned home, and lived in a cheerful and assured expectation of the promise of God. 11 So Anna conceived, and brought forth a daughter, and, according to the angel\’s command, the parents did call her name Mary.
CHAPTER IV. 11 CHAPTER IV. 1 Mary brought to the temple at three years old. 6 Ascends the stairs of the temple by miracle. 8 Her parents sacrifice and return home. AND when three years were expired, and the time of her weaning complete, they brought the Virgin to the temple of the Lord with offerings. 2 And there were about the temple, according to the fifteen Psalms of degrees, fifteen stairs to ascend. 3 For the temple being built in a mountain, the altar of burnt− offering, which was without, could not be come near but by stairs; 4 The parents of the blessed Virgin and infant Mary put her upon one of these stairs; 5 But while they were putting off their clothes, in which they had travelled, and according to custom putting on some that were more neat and clean, 6 In the mean time the Virgin of the Lord in such a manner went up all the stairs one after another, without the help of any to lead her or lift her, that any one would have judged from hence, that she was of perfect age. 7 Thus the Lord did, in the infancy of his Virgin, work this extraordinary work, and evidence by this miracle how great she was like to be hereafter. 8 But the parents having offered up their sacrifice, according to the custom of the law, and perfected their vow, left the Virgin with other virgins in the apartments of the temple, who were to be brought up there, and they returned home. CHAPTER V. 2 Mary ministered unto by angels. 4 The high priest orders all virgins of
CHAPTER IV. 12 fourteen years old to quit the temple and endeavour to be married. 5 Mary refuses, 6 having vowed her virginity to the Lord. 7 The high−priest commands a meeting of the chief persons of Jerusalem, 11 who seek the Lord for counsel in the matter. 13 A voice from the mercy−seat. 15 The high−priest obeys it by ordering all the unmarried men of the house of David to bring their rods to the altar, 17 that his rod which should flower, and on which the Spirit of God should sit, should betroth the Virgin. BUT the Virgin of the Lord, as she advanced in years, increased also in perfections, and according to the saying of the Psalmist, her father and mother forsook her, but the Lord took care of her. 2 For she every day had the conversation of angels, and every day received visitors from God, which preserved her from all sorts of evil, and caused her to abound with all good things; 3 So that when at length she arrived to her fourteenth year, as the wicked could not lay any thing to her charge worthy of reproof, so all good persons, who were acquainted with her, admired her life and conversation. 4 At that time the high−priest made a public order, That all the virgins who had public settlements in the temple, and were come to this age, should return home, and, as they were now of a proper maturity, should, according to the custom of their country, endeavour to be married. 5 To which command, though all the other virgins readily yielded obedience, Mary the Virgin of the Lord alone answered, that she could not comply with it, 6 Assigning these reasons, that both she and her parents had devoted her to the service of the Lord; and besides, that she had vowed virginity to the Lord, which vow she was resolved never to break through by lying with a man. 7 The high−priest being hereby brought into a difficulty,
CHAPTER IV. 13 8 Seeing he durst neither on the one hand dissolve the vow, and disobey the Scripture, which says, Vow and pay, 9 Nor on the other hand introduce a custom, to which the people were strangers, commanded, 10 That at the approaching feast all the principal persons both of Jerusalem and the neighbouring places should meet together, that he might have their advice, how he had best proceed in so difficult a case. 11 When they were accordingly met, they unanimously agreed to seek the Lord, and ask counsel from him on this matter. 12 And when they were all engaged in prayer, the high−priest according to the usual way, went to consult God. 13 And immediately there was a voice from the ark, and the mercy seat, which all present heard, that it must be enquired or sought out by a prophecy of Isaiah, to whom the Virgin should be given and be betrothed; 14 For Isaiah saith, there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of its root, 15 And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, the Spirit of Counsel and Might, the Spirit of Knowledge and Piety, and the Spirit of the fear of the Lord shall fill him. 16 Then, according to this prophecy, he appointed, that all the men of the house and family of David, who were marriageable, and not married, should bring their several rods to the altar, 17 And out of whatsoever person\’s rod after it was brought, a flower should bud forth, and on the top of it the Spirit of the Lord should sit in the appearance of a dove, he should be the man to whom the Virgin should be given and be betrothed.
CHAPTER VI. 14 CHAPTER VI. 1 Joseph draws back his rod. 5 The dove pitches on it. He betroths Mary and returns to Bethlehem. 7 Mary returns to her parents\’ house at Galilee. AMONG the rest there was a man named Joseph of the house and family of David, and a person very far advanced in years, who kept back his rod, when every one besides presented his. 2 So that when nothing appeared agreeable to the heavenly voice, the high−priest judged it proper to consult God again. 3 Who answered that he to whom the Virgin was to be betrothed was the only person of those who were brought together, who had not brought his rod. 4 Joseph therefore was betrayed. 5 For, when he did bring his rod, and a dove coming from Heaven pitched upon the top of it, every one plainly saw, that the Virgin was to be betrothed to him. 6 Accordingly, the usual ceremonies of betrothing being over, he returned to his own city of Bethlehem, to set his house in order, and make the needful provisions for the marriage. 7 But the Virgin of the Lord, Mary, with seven other virgins of the same age, who had been weaned at the same time, and who had been appointed to attend her by the priest, returned to her parents\’ house in Galilee.
Aka: Joseph Calasanctius and Iosephus a Mater Dei, was a Spanish Catholic priest, educator and the founder of the Pious Schools, providing free education to the sons of the poor, and the religious order that ran them, commonly known as the Piarists. He was a close friend of the renowned astronomer Galileo Galilei. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Born 11 September 1557 Peralta de la Sal, Kingdom of Aragon, Crown of Aragon Died 15 August 1648 (aged 90) Rome, Papal States Venerated in Catholic Church Beatified 7 August 1748, Rome, Papal States by Pope Benedict XIV Canonized 16 July 1767, Rome, Papal States by Pope Clement XIII Major shrine San Pantaleo, Rome Feast August 25 August 27 (Pre-1969 General Roman Calendar)
Calasanz was born at the Castle of Calasanz near Peralta De La Sal in the Kingdom of Aragon, on September 11, 1556, the youngest of the eight children, and second son, of Pedro de Calasanz y de Mur, an infanzón (minor nobleman) and town mayor, and María Gastón y de Sala. He had two sisters, Marta and Cristina. His parents gave him a good education at home and then at the elementary school of Peralta. In 1569, he was sent for classical studies to a college in Estadilla run by the friars of the Trinitarian Order.  While there, at the age of 14, he determined that he wanted to become a priest. This calling, however, met with no support from his parents.
For his higher studies, Calasanz took up philosophy and law at the University of Lleida, where he earned the degree of Doctor of Laws cum laude. After those studies, he began a theological course at the University of Valencia and at Complutense University, then still at its original site in Alcalá de Henares.
Joseph\’s mother and brother having died, his father wanted him to marry and carry on the family. But a sickness in 1582 soon brought Joseph to the brink of the grave, which caused his father to relent. On his recovery, he was ordained a priest on December 17, 1583, by Hugo Ambrosio de Moncada, Bishop of Urgel.
During his ecclesiastical career in Spain, Calasanz held various offices in his native region. He began his ministry in the Diocese of Albarracín, where Bishop de la Figuera appointed him his theologian, confessor, synodal examiner, and procurator. When the bishop was transferred to Lleida, Calasanz followed him to the new diocese.
During that period, he spent several years in La Seu d\’Urgell. As secretary of the cathedral chapter, Calasanz had broad administrative responsibilities. In Claverol, he established a foundation that distributed food to the poor.
In October 1585, de la Figuera was sent as apostolic visitor to the Abbey of Montserrat and Calasanz accompanied him as his secretary.
The bishop died the following year and Calasanz left, though urgently requested to remain. He hurried to Peralta de Calasanz, only to be present at the death of his father. He was then called by the Bishop of Urgel to act as vicar general for the district of Tremp.
On September 15, 1616, the first public and free school in Frascati was started up on Calasanz\’ initiative. One year later, on March 6, 1617, Pope Paul V approved the Pauline Congregation of the Poor of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools, the first religious institute dedicated essentially to teaching, by his brief \”Ad ea per quae.\” On March 25, 1617, he and his fourteen assistants received the Piarist habit and became the first members of the new congregation. The habits were paid for by the Cardinal Protector Justiniani, who with his own hands invested Joseph Calasanz in the chapel of his palace. They were the very first priests to have as their primary ministry teaching in elementary schools.
Emphasizing love, not fear, St. Joseph wrote: \”if from the very earliest years, a child is instructed in both religion and letters, it can be reasonably hoped that his life will be happy.\”
While residing in Rome, Joseph endeavored to visit the seven principal churches of that city almost every evening, and also to honor the graves of the Roman martyrs. During one of the city\’s repeated plagues, a holy rivalry existed between him and St. Camillus in aiding the sick and in personally carrying away for burial the bodies of those who had been stricken. On account of his heroic patience and fortitude in the midst of trouble and persecution, he was called a marvel of Christian courage, a second Job.
During the following years, Calasanz established Pious Schools in various parts of Europe. In October 1628 he was a guest of the Conti di Segni family in Poli and there he founded the Pious Schools. After convincing the pope of the need to approve a religious order with solemn vows dedicated exclusively to the education of youth, the congregation was raised to that status on November 18, 1621, by a papal brief of Pope Gregory XV, under the name of Ordo Clericorum Regularium Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum (Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools).
The abbreviation \”Sch. P.\” following the name of the Piarist stands for Scholarum Piarum, Latin for \”of the Pious Schools\”. The Constitutions were approved on January 31, 1622, by Pope Gregory XV, and the order had all the privileges of the mendicant orders conferred upon it, Calasanz being recognized as superior general.
The Order of the Pious Schools was thus the last of the religious Orders of solemn vows approved by the Church. The Piarists, as do many religious, profess vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In addition, according to the wishes of St. Joseph, members of the Order also profess a fourth vow to dedicate their lives to the education of youth.
The concept of free education for the poor was not exclusive to Calasanz In the Duchy of Lorraine a similar project was being undertaken simultaneously by the Augustinians Peter Fourier and Alix Le Clerc whose educational heritage was carried to New France As recognized by Ludwig von Pastor Calasanz was the founder of the first free public school in modern Europe In both cases it was a revolutionary initiative a radical break with the class privileges that kept the masses marginalized and in poverty In the history of education Calasanz is an educator of the poor offering education free of charge to all classes of society without discrimination.
Calasanz displayed the same moral courage in his attitude to victims of the Inquisition such as Galileo and Campanella and in the acceptance of Jewish children in his schools where they were treated with the same respect as other pupils Similarly Protestant pupils were enrolled in his schools in Germany So great and universal was Calasanz\’s prestige that he was even asked by the Ottoman Empire to set up schools there a request which he could not to his regret fulfill due to a lack of teachers He organized and systematized a method of educating primary school pupils through progressive levels or cycles a system of vocational training and a system of public secondary education
In an era when no one else was interested in public education Calasanz managed to set up schools with a highly complex structure He was concerned with physical education and hygiene He addressed the subject in various documents and requested school directors to monitor children\’s health
Calasanz taught his students to read both in Latin and in the vernacular While maintaining the study of Latin he was a strong defender of vernacular languages and had textbooks including those used for teaching Latin written in the vernacular In that respect he was more advanced than his contemporaries
Calasanz placed great emphasis on the teaching of mathematics Training in mathematics and science was considered very important in his Pious schools both for pupils and teachers But Calasanz\’s main concern was undoubtedly the moral and Christian education of his students As both priest and educator he considered education to be the best way of changing society All his writing is imbued with his Christian ideals and the constitutions and regulations of the Pious schools were based on the same spirit Calasanz created an ideal image of a Christian teacher and used it to train the teachers who worked with him
Calasanz was the first educator to advocate the preventive method it is better to anticipate mischievous behaviour than to punish it This method was later developed by John Bosco the founder of the Salesian schools In terms of discipline and contrary to the prevailing philosophy of his own and subsequent eras Calasanz favored the mildest punishment possible While believing that punishment was necessary in certain cases he always preached moderation love and kindness as the basis of any discipline.
Relationship with Galileo and Campanella
At a time when humanistic studies ruled the roost, Calasanz sensed the importance of mathematics and science for the future and issued frequent instructions that mathematics and science should be taught in his schools and that his teachers should have a firmer grounding in those subjects. Calasanz was a friend of Galileo Galilei and sent some distinguished Piarists as disciples of the great scientist. He shared and defended his controversial view of the cosmos.
Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de\’ Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. Commonly referred to as Galileo, his name was pronounced /ˌɡælɪˈleɪ.oʊ ˌɡælɪˈleɪ.iˌ/ (GAL-ih-LAY-oh GAL-ih-LAY-ee, Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]). He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the \”father\” of observational astronomy, modern physics, the scientific method, and modern science.- Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History
Galileo Galilei – Founder of the Scientific Method and Modern Science
When Galileo fell into disgrace, Calasanz instructed members of his congregation to provide him with whatever assistance he needed and authorized the Piarists to continue studying mathematics and science with him. Unfortunately, those opposed to Calasanz and his work used the Piarists\’ support and assistance to Galileo as an excuse to attack them. Despite such attacks, Calasanz continued to support Galileo. When, in 1637, Galileo lost his sight, Calasanz ordered the Piarist Clemente Settimi to serve as his secretary.
Calasanz brought the same understanding and sympathy that he had shown to Galileo to his friendship with the great philosopher Tommaso Campanella (1558–1639), one of the most profound and fertile minds of his time, producing famous philosophical works. Although he was highly controversial as well, Campanella maintained a strong and fruitful friendship with Calasanz.
The philosopher whose utopian visions proposed social reforms in which the education of the masses played an important part must have been a kindred spirit for Calasanz, who was already putting such utopian ideas into practice. Calasanz, with his courage and open-mindedness, invited the controversial thinker to Frascati to help teach philosophy to his teachers. Thus, Campanella, who had rallied to the support of Galileo, also came to the defense of Calasanz with his Liber Apologeticus.
We must ask ourselves has the scientific method greatly increased our understanding of the true nature of science or further complicate things by its modifications?
The name Gabriel seems to be composed of the Hebrew words, gebher: man, and \’el: God. It means, therefore, Man of God, or, Strength of God.
Practically all the missions and manifestations of this Archangel are closely connected with the coming of the Messiah. [Dan. 8: 16; 9:21] The most accurate prophecy regarding the time of the coming of Christ was made by Saint Gabriel through the prophet Daniel.
Immediately before the coming of Christ we meet the Archangel Gabriel in the temple of Jerusalem, announcing to Zachary the birth of a son, John the Baptist, the precursor of Christ: \”I am Gabriel, who stand before God, and am sent to speak to thee, and to bring thee these good tidings.\” [Luke 1:19 ] The greatest and by far the most joyful message ever committed to an Angel from the beginning of time, was the one brought by the Archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, announcing to her the Incarnation of the Word of God and the birth of Christ, the Savior of mankind.
The simplicity and Heavenly grandeur of this message, as related to us by her who was the only witness to Gabriel\’s good tidings, should be read in full in order to understand the sublime and delicate mission of Gabriel in the work of human redemption.
It is the first time that a prince of the court of Heaven greets an earthly child of God, a young woman, with a deference and respect a prince would show to his Queen. That Angel\’s flight to the earth marked the dawn of a new day, the beginning of a new covenant, the fulfillment of God\’s promises to His people: \”The Angel Gabriel was sent from God into a city of Galilee, called Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man, whose name was Joseph, of the house of David, and the virgin\’s name was Mary.\”
Heavenly wisdom, tact, adroitness are evident in Gabriel\’s conversation with the Virgin Mary: \”The Angel being come in said unto her: Hail, Mary full of grace, the Lord is with thee.\”
The Vulgate adds: \”Blessed art thou among women,\” but this part of the greeting was probably added later, taking it from the words of St. Elizabeth, [Luke 1: 42] Gabriel must overcome Mary\’s reaction of surprise at both his appearance and especially at his \”manner of salutation.\” He has to prepare and dispose her pure virginal mind to the idea of maternity, and obtain her consent to become the mother of the Son of God. Gabriel nobly fulfills this task:
\”Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with God.\” He calls her by her own name in order to inspire confidence and to show affection and solicitude in her perturbation.
The great message is presented to her as a decree of the Most High God, a thing ordained in the eternal decree of the Incarnation, predicted centuries before by the prophets, and announced now to her as an event of imminent occurrence depending on her consent: \”Behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever.
And of his kingdom there shall be no end. From these words of the Angel, it became very evident to Mary that her son was to be the promised Messiah, the Son of David. But she did not know how to reconcile her vow of virginity with the promised motherhood, hence her question: \”How shall this be done, because I know not man.\” Gabriel\’s reply shows that God wanted to respect Mary\’s vow of virginity and thus make her a mother without a human father, in a unique and miraculous way: \”The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee.\”
As a last word of encouragement and, at the same time, a most gratifying information, the Archangel reveals to Mary that her elderly and barren cousin Elizabeth is now an expectant mother in her sixth month of pregnancy. This final argument was offered in order \”to prove that nothing can be impossible with God.\”
Mary, unshaken in her profound humility, replied: \”Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to thy word.\” This reply was Mary\’s consent, a consent awaited by heaven and earth. The Archangel Gabriel departed from Mary to bring to all the Angels the glorious tidings of the Incarnation of the Word.
It seems very probable that Gabriel, the Archangel of the Annunciation, was given special charge of the Holy Family of Nazareth. He was probably the Angel who brought \”good tidings of great joy\” to the shepherds \”keeping night watches over their flock,\” the night that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary in Bethlehem.
Gabriel\’s duties towards the Messiah did not come to an end with his birth, Gabriel was probably the Angel who \”appeared in sleep to Joseph,\” first in Bethlehem when he warned him saying: \”Arise, and take the child and his mother, and flee in. to Egypt, and be there until I shall tell you. For it will come to pass that Herod will seek the child to destroy him,\” [Matt. 2: 13] After the death of Herod the Angel appeared to Joseph again in Egypt to tell him to bring the child and his mother back into the land of Israel, Gabriel who is \”the strength of God\” must have been the Angel mentioned by Saint Luke, in his narrative of Christ\’s agony in the garden: \”And there appeared to him an Angel from Heaven, strengthening him.\” [Luke 22: 43]
It was fitting that the Angel who had witnessed the Savior\’s agony, and who had announced His\’ coming to both the Old and New Testament, should also be the first to announce to the world the Savior\’s Resurrection, His triumph over sin and death on Passover morning: \”An Angel of the Lord descended from Heaven, and coming rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. And his countenance was as lightning, and his raiment as snow,\” [Matt. 28: 2]
It is very probable that the Archangel Gabriel is meant when Saint Paul speaks of the second coming of Christ at the end of the world, when Saint Michael\’s struggle with Satan shall be over, and when all the physical and spiritual remedies of Saint Raphael are needed no more, It would seem that of the three Archangels known to us, Saint Gabriel is the one who with a mighty voice will call the dead to life and to judgment: \”The Lord Himself shall come down from Heaven with commandment, and with the voice of an Archangel, and with the trumpet of God; and the dead who are in Christ shall rise first.\” [1 Thess. 4: 15]
The voice of the Archangel and the trumpet of God seem to be the same thing, having the purpose to convey the Divine command to the dead to rise again by the power of the Almighty God. The resurrection of \”the dead who are in Christ\” is the harvest, the gathering of the fruits of Redemption.
Gabriel, who helped along during the long day of man\’s life on earth, in preparing man for the work of Redemption by the Messiah, would seem to be the first among the Angels who are sent out to gather the elect from the four corners of the earth.
⚜️Gabriel, Archangel, the Divine herald. Christian tradition makes Gabriel the Archangel trumpeter of the Last Judgment (1 Thes. 4.16). In Islam, Gabriel revealed the Qur\’an to Muhammad, becoming the Angel of truth. In art and literature Gabriel is mainly treated as the Angel of the Annunciation. In the Annunciation he often carries a lily, properly the symbol of the Virgin. He is often represented on churches with trumpet raised and facing east, ready to proclaim the second coming of Christ.
\”Fortitudo Dei\”, one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible
Only four appearances of Gabriel are recorded: In Daniel 8, he explains the vision of the horned ram as portending the destruction of the Persian Empire by the Macedonian Alexander the Great, after whose death the kingdom will be divided up among his generals, from one of whom will spring Antiochus Epiphanes. In chapter 9, after Daniel had prayed for Israel, we read that \”the man Gabriel . . . . flying swiftly touched me\” and he communicated to him the mysterious prophecy of the \”seventy weeks\” of years which should elapse before the coming of Christ. In chapter 10, it is not clear whether the angel is Gabriel or not, but at any rate we may apply to him the marvellous description in verses 5 and 6. In the New Testament he foretells to Zachary the birth of the Precursor, and to Mary that of the Saviour.
Thus he is throughout the angel of the Incarnation and of Consolation, and so in Christian tradition Gabriel is ever the angel of mercy while Michael is rather the angel of judgment. At the same time, even in the Bible, Gabriel is, in accordance with his name, the angel of the Power of God, and it is worth while noting the frequency with which such words as \”great\”, \”might\”, \”power\”, and \”strength\” occur in the passages referred to above. The Jews indeed seem to have dwelt particularly upon this feature in Gabriel\’s character, and he is regarded by them as the angel of judgment, while Michael is called the angel of mercy. Thus they attribute to Gabriel the destruction of Sodom and of the host of Sennacherib, though they also regard him as the angel who buried Moses, and as the man deputed to mark the figure Tau on the foreheads of the elect (Ezekiel 9:4). In later Jewish literature the names of angels were considered to have a peculiar efficacy, and the British Museum possesses some magic bowls inscribed with Hebrew, Aramaic, and Syriac incantations in which the names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel occur. These bowls were found at Hillah, the site of Babylon, and constitute an interesting relic of the Jewish captivity. In apocryphal Christian literature the same names occur, cf. Enoch, ix, and the Apocalypse of the Blessed Virgin.
As remarked above, Gabriel is mentioned only twice in the New Testament, but it is not unreasonable to suppose with Christian tradition that it is he who appeared to St. Joseph and to the shepherds, and also that it was he who \”strengthened\” Our Lord in the garden (cf. the Hymn for Lauds on 24 March). Gabriel is generally termed only an archangel, but the expression used by St. Raphael, \”I am the angel Raphael, one of the seven, who stand before the Lord\” (Tobit 12:15) and St. Gabriel\’s own words, \”I am Gabriel, who stand before God\” (Luke 1:19), have led some to think that these angels must belong to the highest rank; but this is generally explained as referring to their rank as the highest of God\’s messengers, and not as placing them among the Seraphim and Cherubim (cf. St. Thomas, I.112.3; III.30.2 ad 4um).
The fleur-de-lis, also spelled fleur-de-lys (plural fleurs-de-lis or fleurs-de-lys),is a lily (in French, fleur and lis mean \'flower\' and \'lily\' respectively
Additional reading: St. Gabriel the Archangel. In The Catholic Encyclopedia